What is Asthmatic Bronchitis?

What is Asthmatic Bronchitis?

Generally, bronchitis is the irritation ad inflammation of the bronchial tubes as well as neighboring organs and tissues that are accessories in breathing. The main purpose of the bronchial tubes is to filter the air that passes through the respiratory tract as it sets out to the lungs. These tubes are covered with small hair-like projections that thwart irritants or dirt (such as dust or pollen) from entering the crucial parts of the respiratory tract. These hair-like projections are called cilia. But long term contact with chemicals, viruses, or even dust particles will facilitate these irritants to shatter the respiratory system’s natural defenses which will eventually cause infection and inflammation.

Asthmatic bronchitis is a category of COPD or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This type of pulmonary disease is typically acquired by individuals suffering from chronic bronchitis and it is also hard to differentiate from other lung diseases because their symptoms are quite similar. Other similar respiratory tract diseases are sinusitis, bronchitis, emphysema, and the common asthma.

As an overview, asthma is persistent inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract that causes the airway passages to be extra sensitive, mucus production, and mucus edema. What differentiates asthma from other obstructive lung diseases is that it is mostly reversible, with or without treatment. Individuals afflicted with asthma may experience symptom-free episodes interchanging with acute asthmatic attacks which could last for as little as a few minutes to as long as days. Factors that set off asthmatic attacks are similar to that of asthmatic bronchitis (such as smoking, dust, etc.) but common asthma is primarily triggered by allergens. Common allergens may be due to the season (weed pollens or grass tree) or persistent (dust, roaches, or animal dander). Most asthmatic individuals are very sensitive to an assortment of triggers.

Meanwhile, the primary cause of bronchitis is bacterial infections, but asthmatic bronchitis is thought to be activated by tiny specks that break through the safety walls made of cilia of the bronchial tubes. And like other COPDs, asthmatic bronchitis also involves congestion of the respiratory tract. Bronchial tubes produce mucus under normal circumstances, this mucus covers the trachea, lungs and other organs in the respiratory system. Nonetheless, in the existence of irritants, an overproduction of mucus occurs, which consequently obstructs the airways. Continuous mucoid obstruction of the respiratory tract is fairly widespread among asthmatic bronchitis patients.

Causative factors that may have contributed to the development of asthmatic bronchitis are relentless childhood infections, hyperactivity of the bronchus or immunologic aberrations. Individuals who are either long suffering from asthma and/or other grave types of chronic bronchitis are also highly vulnerable to asthmatic bronchitis.

Furthermore, individuals who are suffering from chronic bronchitis eventually contracts asthmatic bronchitis due to long term exposure to pollutants or environmental toxins and mainly cigarette smoking. Although many medical professionals are still in the shadows of what the precise cause of asthmatic bronchitis, studies increasingly shows that it is primarily caused by environmental factors.

General symptoms of asthmatic bronchitis includes dyspnea or difficulty of breathing and shortness of breath, cough, chest discomforts, wheezing that lasts for several weeks, fatigue or general malaise, pain, weight loss, a general feeling of soreness, and high risk of susceptibility to infections. Although these are also observed among common asthmatic patients, individuals suffering from asthmatic bronchitis have symptoms that are more profound. These symptoms also have higher frequencies compared to the common asthma. An additional warning sign is the difficulty of reaching high or low notes when singing.

Medical treatment for asthmatic bronchitis is similar to that of chronic bronchitis. Medications include bronchodilators, steroids, and antibiotics. But these treatments do not really cure the illness; it helps in alleviating its symptoms and as much as possible give comfort to the patient.

A lot of asthmatic bronchitis sufferers are obliged to take long term treatments which help improve their health situation after an extensive time. Patients are counseled to steer clear from irritants like dust, pollen, smoke, chemicals, and alcohol fumes. They are also advised to avoid bacterial infection, thus they should avoid crowds as much as possible. If it is unavoidable, patients are obliged to wear masks to cover their nose and mouth to prevent bacteria from entering the respiratory tract.

Patients are also required to obtain influenza vaccines. They should also be educated about other precautionary measures to avoid further viral or bacterial infection.

How to Prepare for MBA Entrance Exams ?

How to Prepare for MBA Entrance Exams ?

Vince Lombardi once said “Dictionary is the only place that success comes before work. Hard work is the price we must pay for success. I think you can accomplish anything if you’re willing to pay the price.”
Success in MBA Entrance Exam in India is also no cake walk. You need in-depth knowledge, analytical mind, sharp memory and above all, systematic planning and preparation. Needless to say that the candidates cannot and should not attempt preparation for his MBA Entrance Test overnight. Since the competition is amongst the best available talent from all disciplines, meticulous and long term preparation are required to get admitted to the MBA program. Although the syllabi in the admission/entrance test differ from university to university, there are certain common aspects that appear in most of the entrance test, CAT, XAT, MAT, XLRI, SNAP and MBA Entrance Exams conducted by State Universities in one form or the other. These aspects include tests on quantitative aptitude, reasoning, intelligence, comprehension, case analysis, relationships, word power, synonyms, antonyms, general knowledge/awareness, etc. It is therefore, essential that the candidates start preparing well in advance on all the above aspects. If one can get hold of previous year’s papers or at least the pattern, this would go a long way in guiding the candidates to prepare properly for the test.
Here are some tips to prepare on important aspects which are common to most of the MBA entrance examinations in India:
(1) Quantitative Aptitude: A candidate seeking admission to MBA programme is expected to have aptitude for basic and elementary accounting as well as the knack of solving the simple arithmetic problems. This is one of the areas in the admission test which, if properly prepared and practiced, is likely to put the candidate ahead of others, as one can hope to score even 100% marks in this part. There may be several types of questions that may form part of quantitative aptitude test. The first category could be simple arithmetic problems including profit and loss, percentages, ratio, averages, partnership, etc. Such problems involve simple calculations and with a little practice and basic aptitude, can be solved correctly. The second category of questions could involve multiplication or divisions in 5 to 6 figures or decimals. It may be quite time-consuming if the candidates start actually attempting the entire calculations. Since the candidates are required to work against time it is not advisable to waste time on such calculations. With a little practice, the candidates can easily eliminate most of the choices straightaway to arrive at the correct answer even without any calculations. This can be achieved if the candidates look at all the choices carefully before actually attempting the calculations. Another category of questions may be directed at testing only the intelligence of the candidate and not his/her ability to calculate. There may be some other questions aimed at testing the common sense of the candidates. The entire area of quantitative aptitude, therefore, needs constant practice to calculate quickly with accuracy. More practice is also essential for the candidates to gain confidence in this part of the test. Even if a candidate does not have the basic aptitude for figure-work, he/she can make up for this deficiency by regular practice and a lot of hard work. It is strongly recommended that the candidates practice and attempt all the questions on quantitative.
(b) Logical Reasoning: Questions on logical reasoning may be of several types and in several forms. These could include a statement on which the candidates are asked to draw correct interference out of the given choices. There could be questions on series of words and figures, arrangement of alphabets, brain teasers or even such questions as only call for drawing logical inferences. Just like quantitative aptitude test, this portion of admission test also needs special and detailed preparations and practice. Most of the questions under this category infact test the common sense and sense of proportion and reasoning among the candidates and therefore, must be attempted with a cool head. In case of statements, the given statement as well as choices given must be read at least twice before choosing the right answer. In case there are more than three questions on arrangements of alphabets, it is advisable to write down all the alphabets on the rough work sheet. This will facilitate easy and quick attempt of questions on alphabets. Similarly, there could be certain questions on distances traveled in different directions. In such questions it is proper to draw a rough diagram giving distances traveled in various directions to get the correct answer. Constant practice in the questions on reasoning would make the candidates confident to tackle this particular aspect of the test. To do well in this part of the test, the candidates must therefore, practice hard.
(c) Comprehension Test: Comprehension test is aimed at gauging the understanding of English language by the candidates. Usually, a paragraph is given which the candidates are required to go through carefully and then answer the question by choosing the correct answer. To attempt this part speedily and correctly, the candidates must practice reading with a quick speed and understanding the entire passage. Answer to most of the questions are easily located within the passage itself. But there are certain questions, answers to which are not directly available in the given passage. Such questions can only be answered by those candidates who can understand the passage fully. Regular practice would help the candidates to attempt the comprehension test in more effective and appropriate manner. Tests of English language given in every issue of this magazine invariably contain small comprehension passages. Practice of such passages may be of great help to the candidates for preparing this test.
(d) General Awareness: As the name suggests, the test of general awareness aims to judge the general knowledge of the candidates. Basic facts about all aspects of general knowledge like Science, Geography, History, Economics, Polity, etc are essentially required to be known. A good knowledge of all branches of general knowledge is essential which can only be achieved by reading good books. Reading Newspapers regularly will keep you updated in whatever important is happening around the world.

Common Oral Health Problems in Adolescents

Common Oral Health Problems in Adolescents

Adolescents face many oral health problems which may require them to visit a dentist or any other healthcare professional. Irregular teeth growth is a common problem and adolescents with braces are a common sight. Another problem is wisdom teeth extraction or the removal of the third molar. Dental cavities are yet another common problem in adolescents.

Orthodontics is a specialty in dentistry which deals with correction, development and prevention of irregular teeth, jaw and bite. Orthodontics also helps to correct jaw disorders and facial abnormalities. If a general dentist feels abnormalities in the adolescent, he/she will refer the patient to an orthodontist. The American Dental Association suggests that every adolescent above the age of seven should get an orthodontic evaluation done. Problems which require orthodontic treatment are crowded or crooked teeth, extra teeth, missing teeth, under-bite, overbite, jaw joint disorder, and incorrect or misaligned jaw position.

To get braces or any other orthodontic treatments, the appropriate age is ten to fourteen years. But regardless of the age, the same physical and biological process is used in correcting and moving the teeth alignments. Braces are also known as fixed orthodontic appliances. There are three types of braces used to move and reposition the teeth. The first consists of brackets which are made out of plastic or metal. They are either of tooth color or clear and are bonded onto the teeth. The second type is the lingual type of brackets which are attached to the back teeth and cannot be seen while talking. The third type is a band. It is a metal band which covers the teeth and wraps around the last ones.

When adolescents wear braces they have to take certain precautions in order to avoid any more oral health complications. The most important precautionary measure is to brush the teeth regularly after every meal. Since the food can be easily lodged in braces, it is a good idea to brush carefully with soft bristles toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste. In the morning, the adolescent must floss between the braces and teeth. Food stuffs which are sticky or hard must be avoided as they are very difficult to remove. Foods like caramel, chew candy, popcorn, and nuts must be avoided. Cleaning must be done by the orthodontist or general dentist, every five to six months.

The wisdom teeth or third molars can grow in people of the age fifteen to twenty five. These teeth cause problem, because most of the mouths are too small to adjust new teeth and hence they need to be removed. If the wisdom tooth has place to grow, without affecting other teeth, they can be left to themselves. But if the adolescent experiences pain, facial swelling, mouth infection and gum-line swelling, then they should be extracted immediately. They can also destroy the second molars and impact other tooth. Various gum and jaw diseases can be caused. There can be a tumor development; cysts development and plaque build up. Hence, a surgery is performed to remove the tooth or teeth. The gum tissue covering the wisdom tooth is removed and the connective tissue connecting the tooth to the bone is detached. The tooth is then removed and the opening is sutured. A general dentist can perform wisdom tooth surgery in the local office using anesthesia.

Five times common than asthma is tooth cavities. The tooth above the gum line is made up of enamel, the hardest tissue within the human body. The tooth below the gum-line comprise of nerves, roots and dentin. Dentin is another type of tissue and isn’t as hard as the enamel. The acid which leads to tooth decay is produced by bacteria. These acids, along with dietary sugar, attach the enamel and eat away the minerals within the enamel, until a cavity is formed. This is known as tooth cavity. The biggest prevention against dental cavities is brushing teeth twice a day and even better, after every meal with fluoride toothpaste and soft bristle toothbrush. Carbonated drinks must be avoided strictly and must be replaced with fruit juices and sugary food must be avoided. Intake of fluoridated water also helps a lot or fluoride supplements can be used as replacement.

The Causes of Fire Damage

The Causes of Fire Damage

While some causes of fire are general and can occur anywhere, other causes are more specific for certain rooms.
General Causes of Fire
Electrical
Don’t underestimate the fire risk from electricity just because there is no flame involved. The over warming of hot plugs and sockets and blown fuses may start a fire.
Smoking
Most cigarettes related fires start because the cigarette is not put out completely. Additional common causes include falling asleep with a cigarette and using improper ashtrays.
Candles
Even a tiny candle flame can have upsetting consequences. Many candle related fires start due to draughts that lead fire to catch burnable items and tilting candles that are not placed in suitable holders.
Room by Room Causes of Fire
The Kitchen
The kitchen contains many hazards that can cause fires. The common combination of open fire, grease, electricity, and water is very dangerous. Grease fire is a common cause for fires in the kitchen is and is usually caused by fry pans. This type is dangerous as it can set the whole kitchen on fire. Additional fires are dry cooking fires and oven fires. These types are easy to control and they are not likely to cause damage. Kitchen appliances may also cause fire if not maintained well.
Bedrooms
Bedroom fires are usually caused by misuse of electrical devices. Electrical fires can start due to overloading extension cords and the use of electric blankets and warmers with no lab-approval. Heaters are a concern during winter if they are recklessly placed near linen, clothes, and other flammable items
Attics, Basements and the Garage
Popular as storage areas these places usually contain fire hazards such as gasoline and other flammable liquids. Old clothes, papers and other combustible items are also hazardous and should be stored safely. Many of the electrical fire hazards are also located in these areas. Worn cords, electrical boxes and other signs of electrical trouble should be treated immediately.
Heating Devices and Fireplaces
These are planned to generate heat and may be hazardous if not maintained well. Operating the fireplace without a screen will allow sparks to fly into the room and cause fire. Other causes of fire are combustible items such as wallpaper, curtains, and clothing that are left without maintaining adequate clearance around the heater.

How To Get A Us Gov Grant For Education?

How To Get A Us Gov Grant For Education?

A crash course on Education grants

What are Education Grants?

Education grants are monetary help from the government to people who are more or else in need of support regarding education. There are various types of education grants all of which has its’ own set of targets. A complete list of this as well as the details may be found in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance. Up to $25,000 to upgrade your skills as an Employee. US Government Grants for USA Citizens

How to apply

Application details are usually included in the description of each grant at the CFDA website, however, in general, an applicant needs first to be eligible for the grant, in order to do that, she must have proof of her eligibility.

In addition, almost all grants require an application process that includes writing a grant proposal to the respective to the grant giver, in this case the U.S. government

What are the Grants?

The CFDA offers list f several grants that are outlined into different subcategories, these are:

* Dental Education And Training
* Education Equipment And Resources
* Educational Facilities
* Elementary And Secondary
* General Research And Evaluation
* Handicapped Education
* Health Education And Training
* Higher Education General
* Indian Education
* Libraries And Technical Information Services
* Medical Education And Training
* Nuclear Education And Training
* Nursing Education
* Resource Development And Support Elementary, Secondary Education
* Resource Development And Support General And Special Interest Organizations
* Resource Development And Support Higher Education
* Resource Development And Support Land And Equipment
* Resource Development And Support School Aid
* Resource Development And Support Sciences
* Resource Development And Support Student Financial Aid
* Resource Development And Support Vocational Education And Handicapped Education
* Teacher Training

If you’ll look at the website, you’ll see that there are a lot of grants to choose from, however, for the general purpose of furthering your education the four sub categories, Elementary and Secondary, Higher Education General, Resource Development and Support Higher Education and Resource Development and Support Student Financial Aid, would probably be the most common sub-categories to choose.

Common Types of Coin Collectors

Common Types of Coin Collectors

Coin collecting is a hobby that has been enjoyed since the 1800s, although it greatly increased in popularity during the early to late 1900’s. One reason why coin collecting is an activity enjoyed by so many individuals and individuals of all ages is because of purpose. There are a wide range of reasons and purposes for starting a coin collection. Five common types of coin collectors are highlighted below.

Those who collect coins for profits are commonly referred to as investors. Investors are individuals who collect coins with the sole purpose of seeing profits in the future. These types of coin collectors are also commonly referred to as professional coin collectors, as most are knowledgeable about coin collecting in general, including coin values and conditions. After all, a plain ole penny will likely not lead to profits in the future, but a rare or limited edition coin may.

Another one of the many reasons why coin collectors who collect with the hopes of seeing profits are referred to as investors is because they are making an investment. Although it is possible to come across older, outdated, limited edition, and rare coins by chance, it is difficult, if not impossible, in many cases to do so. For that reason, many coin collectors choose to purchase coins to add to their collections. This is often done by examining professional coin dealers.

Speaking of coin dealers, coin dealers, although highly debatable, can also be considered coin collectors. Coin dealers are regularly on the lookout for valuable coins. The only difference between coin dealers and other coin collectors is that many choose not to hang on to their coins for very long. Many want to turn around and sell these coins as quick as possible to make a fast profit.

Hobbyists are another common type of coin collector. Those who are considered hobbyists collect coins for the sole purpose of personal fulfillment. Hobbyists who collect coins often have a love for coins, history, or collecting in general. Many coin collectors who collect for the purpose of personal fulfillment later donate their coins to historical organizations or choose to pass their coin collections on to future family generations. While many coin collectors start out purely as hobbyists, many later change their goals to make a profit.

As previously stated, many coin collectors choose to pass on their coin collections to family members and future family generations to come. The individuals who inherit these coin collections are technically considered coin collectors as well. This is due in part to the fact that they have a coin collection in their possession. Although many inheritors simply store and treasure the coin passed down to them, many make the decision to continue collecting, allowing the coin collection in question to continue to grow.

Another common type of coin collector is that of a hoarder. Hoarders are individuals who collect just because, not necessarily for profits or for the love of coins or collectables in general. Many hoarders collect any coins that they come across, as many are afraid to miss out on a great collecting opportunity. Although many coin hoarders will generally turn around and examine their collections and its value, many are not usually concerned with doing so at the time.

The five reasons highlighted above are five reasons why most coin collectors collect. What type of coin collector are you?

Copaxone

Copaxone

There is no cure for Multiple Sclerosis. There are several medications thought to slow the progression of the disease. In some people, these medications can reduce the frequency and severity of flare-ups, and may help reduce the number of brain and spinal cord lesions. These medications are fairly new, so it is unknown if they help reduce the extent of disability from MS

One of these medications is Copaxone. This injectable medication is used to treat Relapsing-Remitting MS. It has no effect on the three other types of Multiple Sclerosis.

Researchers are not completely sure how Copaxone works to slow MS progression. It is believed that the drug prevents damage causing cells from forming, and at the same time stimulating the beneficial cells to help reduce the damage in the areas with lesions.

Those who choose Copaxone therapy for MS give themselves a subcutaneous injection (shot under the skin) every day. The medication is dispensed in pre-filled syringes. Measuring is not necessary. Patients using this therapy will be taught how to give injections and for most people the entire procedure takes less than one minute.

As with any medication, there are side effects associated with Copaxone. The most common side effects are swelling, redness, pain, itching or a lump at the injection site. Some people experience a break down of the fatty tissue in the area they take injections.

Just as common are general body reactions like chest pain, weakness, nausea, joint pain, anxiety, muscle stiffness, and feeling flushed. According to the makers of Copaxone, these effects are mild and do not usually require medical treatment.

Less common, but more severe side effects include hives, skin rash with irritation, dizziness, sweating, chest pain, trouble breathing, severe injection site pain and general painful or uncomfortable changes in your overall health. Patients experiencing the above side effects should stop taking injections and call their doctor immediately.
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Can I Become a Transcriptionist?

Can I Become a Transcriptionist?

If you can listen well and type with a minimum of errors, you can become a transcriptionist. General transcription offers anyone proficient with their computer keyboard with the opportunity to build a successful and profitable business career as a transcriptionist. General transcription is simply typing information that you hear from an audio file into a text format.
The best part of this is that there is no special training required to become a transcriptionist. A good listening and typing skill is good enough to start. It is also important that you are able to follow instructions well, as a client will specify what exactly they want. They may have a chosen format for the text that you have to create.
The equipments you need to become a transcriptionist are-
1. computer with high speed internet connection
2. Word processing software
3. a pair of good head phones
4. Foot pedal to control the speed
5. Other software that will help you in transcribing.
Other than typing skill, you may need some common talent such as-
1. Ability to apply common sense- Sometimes you may not understand some words or phrases in the dictation, there you have to figure out what the speaker tries to say.
2. Good communication skills-For marketing your business and dealing with clients, communication is very important.
3. Professionalism-You should be very much professional while dealing with clients.
4. Knowledge in English-For spell check and grammar, you should have good grasp of English language.
5. Perfectionist-This quality of yours will help in editing to ensure fewer mistakes.
6. Good organizational skill-It is better to stay organized to handle your clients.
There is a large demand for general transcription services and this presents an unusual opportunity for those who are interested in this business. If you like to type and have a knack in computer, a transcription business would be a good choice for you. You have the flexibility of your working schedule and you can be your own boss.

Management Of Foreign Invested Enterprises In China

Management Of Foreign Invested Enterprises In China

Board of Directors

Most Foreign Invested Enterprises (FIEs) are governed by a board of directors and senior management. An exception exists for Cooperative Joint Ventures that the parties have chosen not to incorporate (these are governed by a management committee).

Powers: The Chairman, as the legal representative of the enterprise, has the power to legally bind the enterprise and bears significant responsibility for its acts and
omissions. Most of the powers and functions of the board are set forth in the Articles of Association and in the Joint Venture Contract.

Number of Directors: The board of directors of both Wholly Foreign Owned Enterprises (WFOEs) and Joint Ventures are required to appoint between 3 and 13 directors. FIEs with few shareholders may be able to convince the examination and approval authority to dispense with the board of directors and use an executive director.

Membership: In an Equity Joint Venture (EJV), board membership must be proportionate to capital contributions. The board must have a Chairman, but need not have a Vice Chairman. If both are used, however, then if the foreign investor selects the Chairman, the Chinese party must select the Vice Chairman, and vice versa.

Meetings: Joint venture board meetings must be held once a year, and a quorum is 2/3 of the directors. For Equity Joint Ventures, unanimous consent of the board is required for amendment of the Articles of Association, increase or reduction of the Registered Capital, merger or division, and termination and dissolution. The law is significantly more flexible for Wholly Foreign Owned Enterprises – board meetings and quorum requirements are governed by the WFOE’s Articles of Association.

Director & Officer Liability: Director and officer liability law and enforcement is not as well-developed as in many Western nations. Correspondingly, the market for directors and officers liability insurance is not particularly well-developed either. The Chairman’s role as the enterprise’s legal representative encumbers him with both civil and criminal liability for the acts and/or omissions of the enterprise. Directors can be held liable for board resolutions that are illegal or that contravene the Articles of Association and cause losses to the company. Directors, supervisors and senior management personnel can be held liable if they cause losses to the enterprise by violating laws and/or the Articles of Association.

Management

Equity Joint Ventures must appoint a General Manager, one or more Deputy General Managers, and a Finance Manager. Although not required for other FIEs, this is common practice for these enterprises as well. If a Chinese investor nominates the General Manager of an EJV, a foreign investor may nominate the Deputy General Manager, and vice versa.

General Manager: The General Manager is charged with day-to-day operation and may be a foreign national if the enterprise so chooses. The responsibilities of the General Manager should be listed in the Articles of Association even if Chinese law does not require the appointment of a General Manager (as in the case of WFOEs). The General Manager is charged by law with responsibility for formulating a management system for the enterprise; production, operations and management, employment and termination of staff (except those that must be employed and dismissed by the board of directors) and implementing board resolutions and investment and business plans.

Deputy General Managers: A Foreign Invested Enterprise may appoint one or more Deputy General Managers (EJVs are required to appoint at least one).

Finance Manager: An Equity Joint Venture is required to appoint one or more accountants to assist the General Manager with finances. This is also common practice for other FIEs.

Supervisors
LLCs are required to have supervisory boards, although this is often ignored in practice by WFOEs and Joint Ventures.

Stretch Marks – Cause and Treatment Options

Stretch Marks – Cause and Treatment Options

Stretch Marks, known in the medical community as erythrocyanosis are a form of scarring that can occur when a person’s skin is overstretched.

The Two Main Stretch Mark Causes Are:

1) Pregnancy
2) Obesity

Appearance:

Stretch marks have the initial appearance of purple or red looking lines. In time Stretch Marks can fade to a white or off white color.

Stretch Marks are a VERY common condition. Just think of all the people who are either pregnant or overweight!

Stretch Marks are not just confined to the female population either – few people realize that they are a common complaint of male body builders.

Three Possible Stretch Mark Solutions

Stretch Mark Treatments vary from out-and-out scams to some very smart and scientific remedies.

Three of the most common are:

1. DERMABRASION. This is a serious medical procedure that takes place under a general anesthetic. Dermabrasion is definitely not for the faint of heart.

In Dermabrasion the surface of the skin is literally removed by a process of sanding. The aim of dermabrasion is to remove (or at least lessen) the appearance of scars, damage from the sun or dark spots.

The procedure is obviously very painful (hence the general anesthetic) and the healing process can take several months. However, the results can be quite spectacular.

Dermabrasion works best when the scar or mark being treated is above the surface of the skin and is generally much less effective when used to treat sunken scars.

Be Warned: Having a general anesthetic is NOT something to be taken lightly; it carries inherent risks and can be life-threatening. Always seek a second medical opinion (speak to more than one doctor).

2. MICRODERMABRASION. Often referred to as ‘Microderm’ this is far less invasive procedure that has become very popular throughout the Day Spa and cosmetic industries.

In Microdermabrasion the surface layer of the skin is removed by using a special wand with a roughened surface that lightly sands the skin. The shed skin particles are removed via a suction device attached to the wand.

People like Microdermabrasion because it has a reputation of being a safe, painless procedure that does not require an anesthetic.

3. SKIN TREATMENT CREAMS. This is one of those areas where you are most likely to encounter ‘wild claims’ and the general ‘rule of thumb’ here is that if something sounds too good to be true – it probably is.

That said, there are literally tens of thousands of people who swear by such things as Vitamin A Cream, Cocoa Butter and a whole raft of different specially formulated cosmetic creams.

One thing you can do is ask the people trying to sell you any Stretch Mark Removal treatment to show you before and after photographs of their last 50 clients.

Also, ask for written testimonials.

Skin care experts also say that the correct diet, nutritional supplements, rest and common sense (avoiding excessive sun exposure) can have a big impact on the skin’s ability to heal and its general appearance.