Email Scams And How To Avoid Them

Email Scams And How To Avoid Them

I’ve been inundated recently by emails saying ‘You’ve received a greeting card from a school mate’ and ‘You’ve received a postcard from a worshipper!’ or similar.

Being of a suspicious mind I didn’t click on any of these. A brief search would show you that these links take you to sites that attempt to drive malware on to your computer or tempt you to click on virus laden downloads. Quite simply – don’t click on anything you don’t trust!

But it put me in mind of other famous email scams that are becoming more prevalent now that the harvesting of email addresses seems to be reaching epidemic proportions.

One of the other common scams I see in my Junk Email folder each day is the variations on the ‘Nigerian Scam’. These prey on the reader’s willingness to help and the innate greed that attracts the unwary. They usually start with ‘Please help me’ and go on to request your help in ‘freeing’ funds from an overseas organization. Before you know it you will have divulged your bank account information and sent a small ‘token’ amount to cover transfer fees or legal fees or similar requests.

What about the ‘Prizewinner’s Scam’? Seen that one? Tempting isn’t it? Here’s an email claiming that you’ve won millions in a prize winning draw or lottery and all you have to do is email back, with personal details, to claim it! Well it might seem a bit strange that you haven’t entered the draw or lottery concerned but then, wow, you must have struck lucky. But don’t, please don’t reply. They’ll hook you in just like a fish on a line.

There again Oprah must be disgusted that her name’s been stolen by the ‘Oprah Paypal Scam’. This one’s a clever turn on the mail-link-letter system that used to clog up the mail systems except that here you send a small sum to the name on the top of the list in the hope of receiving thousands back. Wave bye-bye to your cash!

But these are just the more obvious ones. Ever been seduced by the ‘Data Entry Scam’, the ‘$1.67 a Day Scam’ or the ‘Western Union Scam’, amongst others? Forewarned is forearmed. I’ll explain all about them and exactly what to watch out for at wealth-providers(dot)com.

Four General Gambling Tips

Four General Gambling Tips

Today I’ll give you four general gambling tips that every gambler should know. I won’t go into a long, exhaustive detail, because these tips don’t require it. The concept is fairly simple. Know them, use them, do better. Let’s get started.

Gambling Tip One: Bankroll

Before going out to gambling you must set limits for yourself. By simply telling yourself how much you can afford to lose and how much you’d like to win, you’ll be ahead of most gamblers. For instance, you might have $100 to lose and you might be willing to stop when you have won $200.

Gambling Tip Two: No Big Six Wheel

The Big Six Wheel is a carnival game that will just suck your money out of your hands. You’ll know this game when you see it. It’s like a standing wheel from the Wheel of Fortune TV show. If you look at the wheel, you’ll see that most of the spaces return even money. Therefore, if you wager on anything else, you’re getting a really bad deal. And there are just enough non-even money spaces to screw you when you wager on the even money spot. You lose either way you play this game. I don’t know if it’s offered online, but if it is, run away.

Gambling Tip Three: Keno is Dinner

Keno was designed to be played while you eat dinner in the casino. Since you can’t gambling while eating, Keno comes to the rescue. However, playing it any other time is somewhat foolish. It’s okay to play for pure fun-if you really love the game. But playing it thinking that you’ll win some big payoff isn’t too wise. Keno is like the lotto expect with much worse payoffs. Many Keno players play while eating or they put in tickets when playing other games, such as poker.

Gambling Tip Four: No Strategy is Foolproof

There is no gambling strategy-other than not playing-that works 100% of the time. Read that again. There are some interesting and fun strategies that can help you have more fun and possible win a little more. In the end, they all fail-yes, all. But don’t take my word for it, go out and play one system for 24 hours at any casino and see how you do. And there’s nothing new under the sun. All the systems being sold as new are just repackages of old systems or they are actually based off of original gambling systems.

Have fun, play smart.

Guatemala Casinos

Guatemala Casinos

Guatemala is situated in Central America bordering Mexico, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador, with the Pacific Ocean on the southwest border and the Caribbean Sea on the northeast border. Its location, culture, and history make Guatemala a favorite spot of tourists from around the world.

The only Guatemala casino is situated in Guatemala City, which is also the capital city of the country and is called the Fantastic Casino. The Fantastic Casino offers for your gambling pleasure three table games, of which two are for blackjack and one is for roulette, as well as 190 slot machines. You are required to be 18 years of age or more in order to participate in any gambling in the Guatemala Fantastic Casino, and the same rule applies for consumption of alcoholic beverages. It is advised to carry recent photo identification with you when visiting the Guatemala casino, even though they do not solicit the same on a regular basis. Those new to gambling can also find free lessons offered periodically by the friendly Fantastic Casino staff, which will initiate you to the thrill and fun of the gambling world.

Spanish is the official language spoken in Guatemala; however, due to the high number of tourists visiting each year, many locals understand and speak fluent English. This is true especially with those that work in the Guatemala Fantastic Casino, restaurants, bars, and hotels where tourists are part of the daily interaction.

A Guatemala casino is a legal gambling facility, but they also practice and enjoy other forms of legal gambling such as bingo and keno. There are lottery facilities, as well, but those are mostly restricted for the locals and printed in the local language. Then too, you must be a Guatemalan citizen in order to participate in the same, unless you play the scratch and win lottery cards, which are made available to both tourists and locals alike.

Locals enjoy the thrill of gambling as well as the tourists, and therefore there are plans in the future to expand gambling facilities with other Guatemalan casinos as soon as possible. Meanwhile, you can enjoy the rich history and ancient ruins of the country, as well as the many water activities during the daytime or when you are away from the casino.

While traveling in Central America, you’ll find that Guatemala is a country of charming and welcoming people.

Is There Such A Thing As Legitimate Easy Money?

Is There Such A Thing As Legitimate Easy Money?

We as humans have always been fascinated with the prospect of easy money. That is why places like Las Vegas and Atlantic City are such booming metropolises making billions of dollars per year on gambling earnings. People also religiously buy lotto tickets hoping to hit the big jackpot and instantly become wealthy enough to never have to work again. Back 150 years ago it was the gold rush which had the similar lure of “striking it rich.” Only then it was gold instead of greenbacks. So the question remains, “is there such a thing as legitimate easy money?”

The fast answer is that there certainly is! I mean there are countless examples of instant winners of the numerous lotteries, and sweepstakes, and raffles, and slot machine jackpots right? There are also scores of athletes who were fortunate enough to have been borne 7 feet tall with blazing speed that can play which ever sport on the professional level that they want to. Theirs is easy money, isn’t it? There are also examples of people who came up with, or maybe even more correct, stumbled upon the right thing at the right time and made millions off it. It wasn’t hard for them was it?

Well yes and no (just like every answer in the entire world)! Yes on the front end this money was easy but shouldn’t we consider the back end as well. What I am referring to is the indirect “costs” of becoming an instant millionaire with easy money. You see if you look at the lives of the people used in my examples you might find (it is my contention that you will find) that this money didn’t come so easily afterall. No they paid for it dearly with broken relationships, annoying public scrutiny, poor decisions and stewardship, and the realization the money isn’t what makes a satisfactory life. It is sad but true that many of these people end up committing suicide because they can’t deal with these costs.

So might I suggest that money doesn’t come as “easy money” like it might seem. Either way you look at it, with money comes risk in equal measure. You can cite those who have sacrificed much including family and friends to “earn” it on the front end or you can look at those who sacrificed much including family and friends to “have” it on the back end. I don’t care—if that’s easy, I want mine to come the good old fashioned way with hard work and proper perspective.

The Persuasive Power Of Supporting Evidence

The Persuasive Power Of Supporting Evidence

I got a call from an acquaintance a while back. He said, ‘Do you remember the conversation we had about Africa? Well, I checked my e-mail and found, unbelievably, that I won an international lottery which originated in Africa. I’m just convinced that everything happens for a reason, aren’t you?’

Before I responded, I thought about this a moment. ‘You know, maybe you’re right. Everything does happen for a reason. It’s a very fortuitous thing that you called me today to tell me about this, for example.’ I went on to explain that these international lotteries are a scam, none of them are real, and that it’s a good thing he called to tell me about it so that I could explain the scam to him.

This conversation made me stop and really think about how people are looking for supporting evidence for what they want in their environment. In this case, my acquaintance saw our conversation about Africa as supporting evidence, or a coincidence, when he received the e-mail about winning the lottery from Africa. He added two and two together, but came up with a wrong answer.

I didn’t like bursting his bubble, but it kept him from losing money. But it was also a valuable lesson for both of us. For me, I realized the use of this language pattern or phrase, can be used in persuasion with amazing results, enabling us to influence in a deep and profound way.

Why is it that people look for supporting evidence? Well, I think it’s because we live in an unstable world. Whenever there’s a lack of stability, people become upended and turn to religion, turn to God, turn to spirituality, and they become more and more superstitious.

As I explain this pattern to you, please understand, my goal is to break things down in a way that gives us tremendous power with our language, our words and persuasion, and in so doing, help you to have more success in your life. That’s my purpose in this discussion. If you don’t believe in God, or you’re not a spiritual person, my point is not to influence you towards or away from anything except towards a language pattern or away from not being as successful as you like, that you’ll be able to use these patterns for your benefit and for the benefit of your clients.

When I said to my acquaintance that ‘everything happens for a reason’ I was alluding to something more than what he understood was happening. I went on to say, ‘It’s a good thing we’re talking because. . . ‘ This applies that there is something more to it than what he was thinking about. It set the stage for me to have an entry point into his mind and explain the difficulty he might have faced had he moved forward with this lottery.

As persuaders, we can give people the supporting evidence they are looking for. These language patterns are powerful and very popular in our current cultural lexicon.

Here’s one way you can use this: Say you’re an adviser and you’re talking with a potential client and they say something really positive like, ‘It’s a good idea I’m talking with you today because. . . ‘ This is an excellent place to use this pattern. Respond simply by saying, ‘Absolutely. You know, after all, there are no accidents, right?’

Is this a stretch? I don’t think so. No matter what our belief system this seems to work. If you think of it this way, everything does happen for a reason–it’s just a matter of whether or not you like the reason.

No language pattern is an island and our goal as persuaders is to layer pattern upon pattern and these patterns piece together a deeper sense of reality when you do this right, what you’re going to be doing is using all sorts of these patterns at high speed.

Fortune 500 Budgeting For Our Personal Lives

Fortune 500 Budgeting For Our Personal Lives

January and February are traditionally busy months in the financial industry as many New Year’s resolutions typically include the goal of becoming debt free or saving for a major purchase. While many of our clients understand the importance of getting professional help when managing their business bookkeeping, only a few think to ask for our services in managing their personal finances.
In the business world, a budget is a financial framework that provides checks and balances to prevent overspending and ensures the availability of funds should the company run into unexpected trouble and requires capital. These same principles can be applied to our personal lives.
We are still close enough to the Christmas holidays to understand how easy it can be to overspend. Presents for the kids, dinners with family and friends, new clothes for the New Year’s Eve party all can add up to significant debt come January. I’m reminded of a Visa commercial that typically gets a lot of airplay in December: The postman comes bearing the monthly bills. The Visa statement is opened showing a large listing of purchases all with zero balances and the recipient can’t believe his luck and faints from the shock. The commercial advertises the Win What You Buy Contest. The more you buy, the more chances you have to win. A certain recipe for financial disaster!
While statistically speaking I don’t know the chances of winning the Visa promotion, I haven’t met or read about one person who has. We shouldn’t base our spending on the chances of winning our purchases or even the lottery. With a little common sense and a trusty calculator, you can manage your spending and save for the future and for unexpected expenses – and feel like you’ve won the lottery!
Fortune 500 companies rely on budgeting and financial reporting. CEOs of major corporations do not make a move without consulting their financial plan. Revenue and expenses are carefully tracked and estimates are created for variable expenses. Corporate debt is studied with the goal of reducing amounts owing without incurring additional debt. Money is diligently earmarked for future expenses and “rainy days.” Almost every financial expenditure is determined a year before incurred – a business cannot thrive without actively managing its cash flow. Most people understand that business success relies on creating a budget and sticking to it. I’m here to tell you that personal success does too.
Everyone talks about setting up a budget and sticking to it, but how do you really go about figuring out what your budget is, or should be?
There are a few simple steps to creating a personal budget. We’ll use the example of Steve, a computer technician.
1. Calculate your income
Calculate your monthly household income from all sources: salary, investment income, pension funds, lottery winnings – both yours and that of your spouse or partner.
For example, Steve earns $50,000 after taxes annually. He has no other income. Dividing by 12, Steve calculates his monthly income as $4,166.67.
2. Determine your ESSENTIAL expenses
Steve has certain fixed monthly expenses. He lists them as:
Mortgage payment
Automobile lease payment
Automobile Insurance
3. Calculate a monthly cost for ESSENTIAL expenses.
The expenses that Steve has deemed essential are a mix of fixed and variable costs. He notes the fixed payments first, assigning their values as:
Mortgage payment $1,300
Automobile lease payment $ 385
Automobile insurance $ 130
To better gauge his variable expenses, Steve creates an expense log and records all his purchases for the two-month priors to setting up his budget. He also examines his old utility statements to determine his average expenses and is able to assign the following values:
Groceries $ 200
Utilities $ 400
Telephone (incl. Long distance) $ 50
Fuel $ 250
Knowing that his variable expenses are based on an average of prior expenses, Steve sets aside $200 per month to cover periods when expenses may be higher than his estimate.
Steve calculates his monthly ESSENTIALS cost as $2,915.00
4. Determine and calculate your non-essentials
Steve examines the spreadsheet he created for step 3 and identifies some other common expenses.
Entertainment $ 50
Meals (incl. Daily coffee) $ 100
Gifts (weddings, birthdays, etc.) $ 100
Books and magazines $ 50
Miscellaneous $ 25
Steve’s monthly non-essential expenses total $325
Steve creates a new spreadsheet with the information he has calculated thus far. He calculates his disposable income as:
Monthly income: $4,166.67
Less: ESSENTIALS $2,915.00
Less: Non-essentials $ 325.00
Disposable income $ 926.67
5. Establish monthly contributions towards debt elimination and savings:
Steve amassed some debt while in school and owes $5,000 on his credit line. He would also like to purchase a vehicle rather than lease and plans to take a trip to Europe in two years to visit family.
He decides on the following monthly contributions:
Debt $ 450.00
Savings $ 300.00
Steve deducts his monthly contributions from his disposable income and is left with $176.67, which he decides to leave in his checking account to cover other incidentals and miscellaneous expenses he may have overlooked. He makes a plan, however, to transfer $500 to his savings account when the balance in his checking account exceeds $1,000.
It’s easy to see that you can write out a plan yourself or use a software package to set up a budget – no need to hire a professional accountant. It’s important to know where your money is coming from and where it is going so that you won’t have any unpleasant surprises – and maybe just enough money left over at the end of the day to buy that lottery ticket you’ve been hoping for!

It’s Not the Size of Your Bank Account

It’s Not the Size of Your Bank Account

You might think that if you win the lottery or get a huge raise, all your problems will be solved. Sounds logical, right? Well, it might sound logical, but it isn’t. Having a bigger bank account will not make all of your problems disappear. Why? Because money is nothing more than a giant magnifying glass. Any problems you have with money only get bigger when you have more of it. There are people who earn $150,000 a year who have huge money problems because they have never learned how money works.
So, if you are want to implement another top wealth creating habit in your life, learn how money works while your bank account is still modest. Deal with any out-of-control spending habits, plus any fear of loss, fear of risk and fear of money issues you might have. If you start small, you’ll be able to make a lot of mistakes without it costing a bundle.
You see, if your bank account is large, chances are that you will want to play big with your money—buy large things, invest large sums and take huge risks. If you’re not well-educated about money, though, or don’t have a lot of experience yet, huge risks can equal huge loss. But if your bank account is small, you’ll be more inclined to learn how to handle your money carefully and frugally, which minimizes your down-side. Sam Walton, founder of Wal-Mart and Sam’s Club stores, always proclaimed that if he controlled his expenses (i.e. kept it small), he could afford to make a lot of different mistakes.
So if you think that you have to wait until you win the lottery to start learning about money, think again. Now is the time to start, while it’s all very small. You can’t hurt yourself too badly when your bank account is small, and you can learn a whole lot. It’s never the size of your bank account that matters—it’s how you deal with money, no matter the size of your bank account. And in this case, the size does matter and smaller is better. Good luck on implementing this top wealth creating habit!

Trinidad And Tobago Casinos

Trinidad And Tobago Casinos

Trinidad and Tobago are two separate islands in the West Indies off the coast of Venezuela that comprise the state of Trinidad and Tobago. While the majority (96%) of the islanders reside in Trinidad, the island of Tobago is an exciting vacation destination also. Both islands have exciting casino action for the gambling aficionado. If you don’t find the game you’re looking for at one casino, chances are you’ll find it at another.

The largest of Trinidad and Tobago casinos, Island Club Casino, has 150 slot machines and 19 table games. The casino is located at Churchill Roosevelt and Uriah Butler Highway in Valsayn, Trinidad. Table games include 3-card poker, which is the most popular, and blackjack, Caribbean stud poker, roulette, and Spanish 21.

Ma Pau is located on French street and Araipita Avenue in Port of Spain, Trinidad. The casino features 50 slot machines and three table games: poker, baccarat, and blackjack.

Kaiso Club Casino, located in Canaan, Tobago, is a private members club.

The Royalton Casino in Tobago is next to the Crown Point Beach Hotel in Crown Point. In addition to slot machines, the Royalton Casino features roulette, Caribbean stud poker, blackjack, and 3-card poker. Sitting on Store Bay’s white sand beach, you can conveniently stay at the Crown Point Beach Hotel, which has housed many famous guests including Queen Elizabeth II, Princess Margaret, the Beatles, Sammy Davis Jr., and many others. The casino, restaurant, and bar round out this property to meet all your needs.

New Trinidad and Tobago casinos have recently popped up on the islands including Club de Vegas, Club Casanova, Crystal Palace, and others. Some of the casinos on the twin islands have dress codes, so you’ll want to check before going out on the town.

In addition to Trinidad and Tobago casinos, the state also features a horse racing facility. Santa Rosa Park is located in Arime, Trinidad, and features thoroughbred racing on two tracks. Santa Rosa Park also has a race book.

The two-island state of Trinidad and Tobago has a state run lottery for those who enjoy this form of gambling. Online terminals at agent locations, along with keno monitors, give players a variety of lottery games from which to choose.

1st Step to Manifesting Life

1st Step to Manifesting Life

Do you know at least one person that seems to make the most of out every situation? Someone who has great success at the act of manifestation (the act or product of bringing about change through the direction of consciousness)?

You may even have felt a little jealous of the person because it appears they have everything, seemingly getting these things with minimal effort as though they were born ‘lucky’. Well, it is probably time you understand that the power of manifestation lies within each of us and it is up to you to learn more about it.

Attracting abundance is knowledge. Just like any other skill people have, manifesting is no different. Skills like playing a musical instrument or making gourmet meals require time and commitment to learn and practice. So does the skill of manifesting. How good you get, depends on how well you learn the skill and how well you apply it.

Even though some of us are better at certain skills, that doesn’t mean the rest of us, with practice, can’t improve or even surpass the talent expressed by another. Some seem to have learned it so well that they often times don’t even realize how they do it. Manifesting abundance now comes to them so readily it appears ‘natural’ just as a well trained pianist seems to play the piano without thought or effort. They learn to believe whole-heartedly that they simply deserve something; it is now part of their reality. Those are the ones that seem to be born ‘lucky’. Luck is not how they got there!

So, how can you start on your journey towards manifesting great things for yourself and those you love? Here is the first step – a basic understanding of the ‘Law of Attraction’.

Gaining a good understanding of how the “law of attraction” works is the first step in bringing abundance into your life. You can create our own reality. You can attract riches, opportunities and happiness, etc., in our life when you learn to focus or attract yourself on them. In order to do this, you must learn to believe and think in a positive way towards those things you seek. You probably also know at least one person (hopefully not you!), who dwells on the negative and truly will focus on having less. They are attracted to ‘less’ not ‘having more’. When you focus on “I hate my current employment” then you will never notice the aspects of your employment that might be satisfying. You must understand that just wanting something isn’t going to bring that to you if you continue to focus on the ‘not having’ of that something. You may have personally experienced that “not having” attitude and learned that it blocked your true desires.

You must learn to focus on a particular item or scenario rather than on vague goals like ‘more cash’ or ‘winning money’. Focusing on winning the lottery, for example, is a fruitless event. Although, through luck, some win lotteries, focusing on winning the lottery is kind of like focusing on “not having.” Oddly enough, many who focus on winning naturally dream of what they could do to help others, even though many of those dreams could actually already be done with their current incomes on a smaller scale, but they don’t. This is probably because they focus on what they perceive as their ‘not having’ or ‘having so little’. With this attitude they end up believing that those dreams are only possible by winning the lottery. They are literally afraid to act on their dreams for fear that they do not currently ‘have enough’ to offer.

For example, I know several decently paid professionals that repeatedly tell me that they too would really love to sponsor a foster child in another country and they would if they won the lottery. They are afraid that they cannot currently afford $1 a day as that might leave them short of cash in case of an emergency like an unexpected auto repair. Their focus is on “not enough” rather than being focused on sponsoring a needy child. When they are focused on “not enough” it won’t ever matter how much money they have, it will never be enough.

Just talking about sponsoring a child brought their fears out into the open. It would be great if they could trust that helping a needy third world child would not put them at financial risk.

So what I would tell these professionals, who would like to sponsor a child but feel they just cannot, is that they focus on visualizing a starving child being fed by their contribution and perhaps a wonderful letter from that child, complete with a photo to be proudly placed along side other family pictures. This would be a positive image/thought to get that picture to become a reality. Perhaps talk it over with the rest of the family to see what they could do without to create that $1 a day. This is the first step in learning how to manifest their lives. This same first step will work for all aspects of life from healthy, happy relationships to personal wealth.

Is it your turn to make the most of out every situation? Is it your turn for others to see you as ‘lucky’? Does your lack of ability to manifest life leave your soul wounded or lacking? Would you like to learn all the steps to manifest life? You deserve it and it is time to take action.

Doug Gray

Managing A Lottery Syndicate For Dummies

Managing A Lottery Syndicate For Dummies

Lotteries offer the common person a glimmer of hope to become rich and solve all of their financial problems. People realise these days that the more lottery tickets you hold, the better your chances of winning are.

For the UK National Lottery, there are about 14,000,000 different combinations so if you have one line, or one ticket, you one 1 in 14,000,000 chances of winning. Now if you have, say, 1000 tickets you have 1 in 14,000 chances of winning so your odds increase considerably. But purchasing 1000 tickets is beyond most people’s means. Who could afford $1000 a week? So the answer is to join a syndicate and spread the cost and share the benefits of better odds.

If you were in a 100 person syndicate paying $10 a week into the pool and you won $10,000,000 you would each win around $100,000. Not bad for your $10 investment.

When you start a syndicate you should make sure you set things up properly because there will always be disputes and arguments especially concerning people who leave or join.

Here are some suggestions:

* Put everything in writing. Set up a contract detailing the rules of your syndicate and get everyone to sign it. All members should have a copy, give a copy to a solicitor or independent adjudicator and display a copy where you can all see it. Here are some things you should include in your contract.

* Decide on the maximum number of people you allow in to your syndicate.

* If you are going to play the same numbers each time, ensure they are noted in the contract.

* Decide who will be responsible for filling out the tickets and putting the tickets on each week. Include that in the contract and ensure a system is in place to deal with occasions when this person is unavailable. The ticket stubs should be made available by this person(s) as proof that the tickets were put on.

* Decide how and who will collect weekly subscriptions.

* Decide what will happen if someone misses a subscription – will they be excluded from a win, or will their subscription be made up by others? If someone misses a set number of consecutive subscriptions, you might want to exclude them fro the syndicate and allow someone else in. – Whatever you decide, ensure it is in the contract.

* Decide what happens with minor prizes. Do they get carried over and saved for distribution at a later date (for example Christmas) or are they shared out when the amount reaches a certain level. Or do you play additional lines when there’s a roll over for example?

* Check your local tax laws to see whether you need to declare the syndicate for tax purposes.

* Check with your employer to ensure you have permission to run a syndicate on their premises and in their time.

* Decide how people can leave and join your syndicate. If you have a maximum of 20 people allowed, you might have a waiting list of people who want to join.

This is by no means an exhaustive list, but any contract is better than no contract at all.

The most common kind of dispute is when someone has missed a payment, and the syndicate have a win that week. If it is the jackpot – there will be arguments over whether that person should be included in the payout. Decide now, document it and get everyone to sign up to the rules. Even if you have been running a syndicate for years, it is not too late to initiate a contract. Get everyone together, discuss and agree the rules, get them down on paper and get everyone to sign up to them.

The same applies to family syndicates. To avoid any rifts and arguments, make sure everyone knows the rules.